How They Voted 2007 - House | U.S. Chamber of Commerce

How They Voted 2007 - House

Each House vote used in the ratings is described separately and is identified by a number that corresponds to the numbers at the top of the columns of tabular information.

Key to Symbols

+ "Correct" vote, supporting the Chamber's position '07% Percentage of correct votes of total cast by member on Chamber-selected issues during 2007, the second session of the 110th Congress.
- "Wrong" vote, contrary to the Chamber's position
? No recorded vote CUM% Average annual percentage of correct votes cast by member on Chamber-selected issues since the Chamber began rating members in 1965, or since that member's first year in Congress, through 2007.
S Speaker did not vote
P Voted "present"
* Seat vacant on date of the vote   Note: The percentage calculations were made using only + and - votes. The ?, S, and P votes were not included in the calculations.
NA Insufficient votes cast  
Alabama       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2007% Cum %
1 Bonner Jo R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 94
2 Everett Terry R + + + - + + + + - + + + + + ? + ? + - + 83 87
3 Rogers Michael D. R + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + + - + 90 92
4 Aderholt Robert B. R + ? + - + + + + - + + + + + + + + - - + 79 85
5 Cramer Robert E. D + + - + + + + + + - + - - + + ? - + + + 74 70
6 Bachus Spencer R + + + ? - - + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 79 91
7 Davis Artur Genestre D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 70 67
Alaska                                                  
1 Young Don R + + ? ? + + + + + + ? + - - + + + + + + 88 75
Arizona                                                  
1 Renzi Richard G. R + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + 95 93
2 Franks Trent R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 86
3 Shadegg John B. R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 88
4 Pastor Ed D - - - + + ? - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 47 35
5 Mitchell Harry E. D - - - + + + + + + - - - - - + + + + + + 60 60
6 Flake Jeff R + + + - - - + - - + - + + + ? + + + + + 68 71
7 Grijalva Raul M. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 26
8 Giffords Gabrielle D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + ? ? + + 61 61
Arkansas                                                  
1 Berry Marion D + + - + + + - + - - - - - - + + - + + + 55 58
2 Snyder Vic D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 52
3 Boozman John N. R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 96
4 Ross Mike D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 70 60
California                                                  
1 Thompson Mike D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 51
2 Herger Wally R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 92
3 Lungren Daniel E. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + ? ? + + 83 85
4 Doolittle John T. R + + + + - + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 86
5 Matsui Doris Okada D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 45
6 Woolsey Lynn C. D - - - + + + - + + - - - - - + + - - - + 40 24
7 Miller George D - - - + + + - + ? - - - - - + + - - + + 42 24
8 Pelosi Nancy D S - - S S S S + S - S - - - S S - + S S 22 25
9 Lee Barbara D - - - + + + - + + - - - - - + + - - + + 45 23
10 Tauscher Ellen O. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 57
11 McNerney Jerry D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
12 Lantos Tom D + ? ? + + + - + + - + - - - + + ? ? - + 63 29
13 Stark Fortney Pete D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - - + + 47 18
14 Eshoo Anna G. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 37
15 Honda Michael M. D + - - ? + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 58 37
16 Lofgren Zoe D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 36
17 Farr Sam D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 36
18 Cardoza Dennis A. D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + ? + 63 65
19 Radanovich George R + + + - - - + - - + + ? + + - + + + + + 68 93
20 Costa Jim D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 65 76
21 Nunes Devin R + + + - - - + - + + + + + + + + ? + + + 79 95
22 McCarthy Kevin R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 85
23 Capps Lois D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 45
24 Gallegly Elton R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + 89 93
25 McKeon Howard P. R + + + - - - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 95
26 Dreier David R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 95
27 Sherman Brad D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 50 41
28 Berman Howard L. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - + + + 53 31
29 Schiff Adam B. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 44
30 Waxman Henry A. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + ? - + + + 53 25
31 Becerra Xavier D ? - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 58 31
32 Solis Hilda L. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 31
33 Watson Diane E. D + - - + ? + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 47 29
34 Roybal-Allard Lucille D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 31
35 Waters Maxine D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - - - + 42 20
36 Harman Jane D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - + ? + 56 58
37 Richardson Laura D ? ? ? ? + + ? ? + ? ? ? ? ? ? + - - ? ? 67 67
37 Millender-McDonald Juanita D ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? - - ? + ? ? ? ? + 50 37
38 Napolitano Grace F. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 45 38
39 Sanchez Linda T. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 32
40 Royce Edward R. R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 83
41 Lewis Jerry R + + + - - - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 86
42 Miller Gary G. R + + + - - + + + + + + ? + + ? + + + + + 89 96
43 Baca Joe D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 47
44 Calvert Ken R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + 89 97
45 Bono Mack Mary R + - + - ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 89 93
46 Rohrabacher Dana R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + + + + + - + 75 82
47 Sanchez Loretta D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 60 45
48 Campbell John R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 73
49 Issa Darrell E. R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + + ? + + + + 74 95
50 Bilbray Brian P. R + - + + - - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 82
51 Filner Bob D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 45 27
52 Hunter Duncan R + ? ? - - + + + + + + + + + + + + ? ? ? 87 84
53 Davis Susan A. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 43
Colorado                                                  
1 DeGette Diana D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 35
2 Udall Mark D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 43
3 Salazar John T. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 64
4 Musgrave Marilyn N. R - + + - - + + - - + + + + + - ? + + + + 68 91
5 Lamborn Doug R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 70
6 Tancredo Thomas G. R + ? ? - - ? + - - + ? + + ? - ? + + + + 64 80
7 Perlmutter Ed D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 60
Connecticut                                                  
1 Larson John B. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 43
2 Courtney Joseph D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
3 DeLauro Rosa L. D - - - + + + - + + - - - - - + + - - + + 45 29
4 Shays Christopher R - - - + + + + + + - + + - - + + + + + + 70 69
5 Murphy Christopher S. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
Delaware                                                  
1 Castle Michael N. R - - - + + + + + - + + - + + + + + + + + 75 84
Florida                                                  
1 Miller Jefferson B. R + + + - - - + - - + - - + + - + + ? + + 58 82
2 Boyd Allen D + + - + + + + ? + - + - - + + + - + + + 74 71
3 Brown Corrine D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 38
4 Crenshaw Ander R + ? ? - - + + ? + ? + + + + + + ? + + + 87 96
5 Brown-Waite Ginny R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 90
6 Stearns Cliff R + + + - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + - + 80 83
7 Mica John L. R + + + - - + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + + 89 93
8 Keller Ric R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 96
9 Bilirakis Gus Michael R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 90
10 Young C. W. R + + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 83
11 Castor Katherine D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 55
12 Putnam Adam H. R + + + - - - + - + + + + + + + + + + + + 80 93
13 Buchanan Vern R + + + - - + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + 85 85
14 Mack Connie R + + + - ? + + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 79 84
15 Weldon Dave R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 75 88
16 Mahoney Tim D - + - + + + + + + - + - - + + + + + + + 75 75
17 Meek Kendrick B. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 51
18 Ros-Lehtinen Ileana R + - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 78
19 Wexler Robert D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 34
20 Wasserman Schultz Debbie D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 46
21 Diaz-Balart Lincoln R ? - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 89 78
22 Klein Ron D + ? ? + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 67 67
23 Hastings Alcee L. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 29
24 Feeney Tom R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 87
25 Diaz-Balart Mario R + - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ? 89 93
Georgia                                                  
1 Kingston Jack R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + - + 65 87
2 Bishop Sanford D. D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 70 61
3 Westmoreland Lynn A. R + + + - - ? + - - + + + + + - + ? + + + 72 86
4 Johnson Henry C. D - - - + + + - + ? - + - - - + + - - + + 47 47
5 Lewis John D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 21
6 Price Tom R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + - + + + + + 80 91
7 Linder John R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 75 96
8 Marshall Jim D - + - ? + + + + - + + - - - + + - - - + 53 58
9 Deal Nathan R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - ? + + + + 68 85
10 Broun Paul R ? + + ? - - ? - - + ? ? ? + ? + + + ? ? 64 64
10 Norwood Charlie R ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? NA 86
11 Gingrey J. Phillip R + + + - - - + + - + + + + + - + + + + + 75 90
12 Barrow John D + + + + + + + + + - + - - - + + + + + + 80 74
13 Scott David A. D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 65 67
Hawaii                                                  
1 Abercrombie Neil D + - - + + + ? + + - + - - - + + - - - + 53 28
2 Hirono Mazie K. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 45 45
Idaho                                                  
1 Sali William T. R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 75 75
2 Simpson Michael K. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + ? + + + + 84 95
Illinois                                                  
1 Rush Bobby L. D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 60 34
2 Jackson Jesse L. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 23
3 Lipinski Daniel D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 49
4 Gutierrez Luis V. D - - - + ? + - + + - + - - - ? + - - + + 44 28
5 Emanuel Rahm I. D - - - + + + ? + + - + - - - + + - + + + 58 44
6 Roskam Peter J. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + ? + + + + 84 84
7 Davis Danny K. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 32
8 Bean Melissa L. D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + + + + + 70 74
9 Schakowsky Janice D. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 27
10 Kirk Mark Steven R - - - + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + + + + 84 86
11 Weller Jerry R + - + + ? + + + + + + + + + + ? + + + + 94 92
12 Costello Jerry F. D + + - - + + - + + - + - - - ? + - - - + 47 36
13 Biggert Judy R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 96
14 Hastert Dennis R + ? ? - - + ? + + + ? ? + + ? + ? + + + 85 94
15 Johnson Timothy V. R + - + + + + + + - + + - + + + ? + + + + 84 81
16 Manzullo Donald A. R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 86
17 Hare Phil D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - + 55 55
18 LaHood Ray R + ? ? ? + + ? + - - + + + ? ? + ? ? + + 83 87
19 Shimkus John R + + + - - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + 85 90
Indiana                                                  
1 Visclosky Peter J. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 50 31
2 Donnelly Joseph D - - - + + + + + + + + - - - + + - - + + 60 60
3 Souder Mark E. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + ? + + + + 84 87
4 Buyer Steve R + + + - - ? + - - + + ? + + - + ? ? + + 69 93
5 Burton Dan R + + + - - - + + - + + - + + + + + + + + 75 88
6 Pence Mike R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + ? + + + + + 74 92
7 Carson Julia D - - -

+

? ? - + + - + - - - + ? ? ? + + 47 34
8 Ellsworth Brad D + + - + + + - + + + + - - - + + - + + + 70 70
9 Hill Baron P. D + - - + + + + + + + + - - - + + - + + + 70 57
Iowa                                                  
1 Braley Bruce L. D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - ? + + 63 63
2 Loebsack David D - - - + + + + + + - + ? - - + + - - + + 58 58
3 Boswell Leonard L. D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 59
4 Latham Tom R + + + + - + + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + 95 98
5 King Steven A. R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 75 91
Kansas                                                  
1 Moran Jerry R + + + - - + + + + + - - + + + + + + + + 80 91
2 Boyda Nancy E. D + - - + + + + + + - + - - + + + - - + + 65 65
3 Moore Dennis D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 59
4 Tiahrt Todd R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 94
Kentucky                                                  
1 Whitfield Ed R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 95
2 Lewis Ron R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 92
3 Yarmuth John A. D - - - + + ? + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 53 53
4 Davis Geoff R + + + - - - ? + + + + + + + + + + + ? + 83 90
5 Rogers Harold R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 85
6 Chandler Albert Benjamin D - - - + + ? - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 47 53
Louisiana                                                  
1 Jindal Bobby R + ? ? - ? + + + ? + + + + + + ? ? ? - + 85 91
2 Jefferson William J. D + - - + + + + + + - + - ? - + ? - - + + 61 46
3 Melancon Charles D + + + + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 75 78
4 McCrery Jim R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 96
5 Alexander Rodney R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 84
6 Baker Richard H. R + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 95 96
7 Boustany Charles W. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + ? + + + + + 84 91
Maine                                                  
1 Allen Thomas H. D - - - + + + + + ? - + - - - + + - - + + 53 42
2 Michaud Michael H D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 46
Maryland                                                  
1 Gilchrest Wayne T. R - - - + + + + + + + + + + ? + + + + + + 84 88
2 Ruppersberger C.A. D + - - + ? + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 63 56
3 Sarbanes John P. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
4 Wynn Albert Russell D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 42
5 Hoyer Steny H. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 31
6 Bartlett Roscoe G. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + - + + + + + 80 86
7 Cummings Elijah E. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 33
8 Van Hollen Christopher D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 41
Massachusetts                                                  
1 Olver John W. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 27
2 Neal Richard E. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 32
3 McGovern James P. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 34
4 Frank Barney D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 24
5 Tsongas Niki D ? ? ? ? + + ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? + - - ? ? 60 60
5 Meehan Marty D - ? ? ? ? ? - ? ? ? ? - - ? + ? ? ? + + 43 36
6 Tierney John F. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 27
7 Markey Edward J. D + - - + + + ? + + - + - - - + + - - + + 58 24
8 Capuano Michael E. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 31
9 Lynch Stephen F. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 40
10 Delahunt William D. D - - ? + + + - + ? - + - - - + + - - + + 50 34
Michigan                                                  
1 Stupak Bart D - + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - + 55 34
2 Hoekstra Peter R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + - ? + - - + 68 90
3 Ehlers Vernon J. R + - + - + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 90
4 Camp Dave R + + + - + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 90 96
5 Kildee Dale E. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 50 27
6 Upton Fred R + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 100 94
7 Walberg Timothy R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 90
8 Rogers Mike R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 95
9 Knollenberg Joe R + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 100 97
10 Miller Candice S. R + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 100 96
11 McCotter Thaddeus G. R - + + - - + + + + + + + - + - + + + + + 75 89
12 Levin Sander M. D - - - + ? + - + + - + ? - - + + - + + + 56 33
13 Kilpatrick Carolyn C. D + + ? + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 63 34
14 Conyers John D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 19
15 Dingell John D. D + + - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 65 27
Minnesota                                                  
1 Walz Timothy J. D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 60 60
2 Kline John Paul R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 95
3 Ramstad Jim R - - - + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + 80 88
4 McCollum Betty D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + ? + + + 58 36
5 Ellison Keith M. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
6 Bachmann Michele R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 75 75
7 Peterson Collin C. D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 60 63
8 Oberstar James L. D - + - + ? ? + + + - + - - - + + ? ? - + 56 23
Mississippi                                                  
1 Wicker Roger R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + ? + + + + + 84 95
2 Thompson Bennie G. D - + - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 50 38
3 Pickering Charles W. R + + + - - + + + + + + + ? + + + + + + + 89 93
4 Taylor Gene D - - - + + + - + + + + - + - + + + - - + 60 58
Missouri                                                  
1 Clay William Lacy D - ? ? + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 61 45
2 Akin W. Todd R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + - + + + + + 80 90
3 Carnahan Russ D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 50
4 Skelton Ike D + ? ? + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 72 57
5 Cleaver Emanuel D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 51
6 Graves Sam R + ? + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 95 98
7 Blunt Roy R + ? + - - - + - + + + + + + + + + + + + 79 93
8 Emerson Jo Ann R + + + - + + + + + + - - + + + + + + + + 85 88
9 Hulshof Kenny C. R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + ? ? + + + + 89 95
Montana                                                  
1 Rehberg Dennis R. R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 95
Nebraska                                                  
1 Fortenberry Jeffrey R + - + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 92
2 Terry Lee R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 92
3 Smith Adrian M. R + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 95 95
Nevada                                                  
1 Berkley Shelley D + - - + + + + + + - ? - - - + + - - + + 58 50
2 Heller Dean R + - + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 80
3 Porter Jon C. R - - + - + + + + + + ? + + + + + + + + + 84 95
New Hampshire                                                  
1 Shea-Porter Carol D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
2 Hodes Paul W. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
New Jersey                                                  
1 Andrews Robert E. D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - + 50 38
2 LoBiondo Frank A. R - - - + + + + + + - + - - + ? + + - + + 63 71
3 Saxton Jim R - ? ? + - + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + 83 79
4 Smith Christopher H. R - - - + + + + + + + + - - + + + + - + + 70 60
5 Garrett E. Scott R - + + - - - + + - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 86
6 Pallone Frank D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 45 34
7 Ferguson Mike R - - - + + ? + + + - + + - + + + + + + + 74 86
8 Pascrell Bill D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 38
9 Rothman Steven R. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - ? - ? 44 35
10 Payne Donald M. D - - - + + ? - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 42 22
11 Frelinghuysen Rodney P. R - - + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 80 86
12 Holt Rush D. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 33
13 Sires Albio D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 55
New Mexico                                                  
1 Wilson Heather R + - + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 85 92
2 Pearce Stevan R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + - + + + + + 80 94
3 Udall Tom D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - - + + 47 33
New York                                                  
1 Bishop Timothy H. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 43
2 Israel Steve D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + ? + + + 58 51
3 King Peter T. R + - + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + 90 77
4 McCarthy Carolyn D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + ? + + + 58 52
5 Ackerman Gary L. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 31
6 Meeks Gregory W. D - + - ? + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 58 47
7 Crowley Joseph D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 46
8 Nadler Jerrold D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - - + + 47 22
9 Weiner Anthony D. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 37
10 Towns Edolphus D + + - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 65 30
11 Clarke Yvette Diane D - ? ? ? + + - ? + ? + - - ? + + - + + + 64 64
12 Velazquez Nydia M. D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 60 27
13 Fossella Vito R + - + - - ? + + + + + - - + - + + + + + 68 91
14 Maloney Carolyn B. D - - - + + + - + + - + - ? - + + - + + + 58 40
15 Rangel Charles B. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 23
16 Serrano Jose E. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 25
17 Engel Eliot L. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + ? - + + + 53 29
18 Lowey Nita M. D - ? - + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - + + + 56 35
19 Hall John J. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
20 Gillibrand Kirsten E. D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 60
21 McNulty Michael R. D - - - + + ? ? + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 33
22 Hinchey Maurice D. D - - - + + + - + + - - - - - + + - - + + 45 25
23 McHugh John M. R - - + + + + + + ? + + ? - + + + + - + + 78 82
24 Arcuri Michael A. D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 55
25 Walsh James T. R - - + + + - + + + + + - - + + + + + - + 70 81
26 Reynolds Thomas M. R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 95
27 Higgins Brian D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 48
28 Slaughter Louise McIntosh D - - - + + + + ? + - + - - - + + - - - + 47 32
29 Kuhl John R. R - - + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + 80 90
North Carolina                                                  
1 Butterfield George K. D + - - + + ? - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 58 44
2 Etheridge Bob D - + - + + + - + + + + - - - + + - + + + 65 58
3 Jones Walter B. R - + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + ? - - + 79 73
4 Price David E. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 48
5 Foxx Virginia R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 80
6 Coble Howard R + ? ? - - + + + + + ? + + + + + + + + + 88 88
7 McIntyre Mike D + + - + + + + + + + + - - - + + - - - + 65 63
8 Hayes Robin R + ? ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - - + 89 87
9 Myrick Sue Wilkins R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + + ? + + + + 74 91
10 McHenry Patrick T. R + + + - - - + - + + + + + + - + + + + + 75 86
11 Shuler Heath D - - - + + + + + + + + - - - + + - - - + 55 55
12 Watt Melvin L. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + - + 55 28
13 Miller Brad D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - - + + 47 42
North Dakota                                                  
AL Pomeroy Earl D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 52
Ohio                                                  
1 Chabot Steve R + + + - - - + - - + + - + + + + + + + + 70 88
2 Schmidt Jean R + ? + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 89 90
3 Turner Michael R. R + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 100 98
4 Jordan James D. R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 70
5 Latta Robert E. R ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? NA NA
5 Gillmor Paul R + + + - * * + + * + + ? + + + * * * + + 92 90
6 Wilson Charles A. D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + ? - - + + 63 63
7 Hobson David L. R + + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + ? + + + 89 91
8 Boehner John A. R + + + - - - + - ? + + + + + + + + + + + 79 93
9 Kaptur Marcy D - - - + + + ? + + - + - - - + + - - - + 47 30
10 Kucinich Dennis J. D - ? - + + + - - + - ? - - - + ? - - - + 35 20
11 Jones Stephanie Tubbs D ? + - + + + - + + - + - - - + ? - + + + 61 38
12 Tiberi Patrick J. R + + + - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 85 97
13 Sutton Betty D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - + 55 55
14 LaTourette Steven C. R - - + - + + + + + + + - - + + + + - - + 65 83
15 Pryce Deborah R + + + + - ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 95 97
16 Regula Ralph R + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + 95 80
17 Ryan Timothy J. D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 43
18 Space Zachary T. D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - ? 58 58
Oklahoma                                                  
1 Sullivan John A. R ? + + - - + + - - + + + + + - ? + + + ? 71 91
2 Boren Dan D + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + ? ? + + 94 92
3 Lucas Frank D. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 94
4 Cole Tom R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + ? + + + + 84 96
5 Fallin Mary R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 85
Oregon                                                  
1 Wu David D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - + 50 42
2 Walden Greg R + + + + - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 90 96
3 Blumenauer Earl D - - - + + + - + + - - - - - + + - + + + 50 35
4 DeFazio Peter A. D - - - + + + - + + - - - - - ? + - - - + 37 29
5 Hooley Darlene D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 51
Pennsylvania                                                  
1 Brady Robert A. D - - - + + ? - + + - + - - - + + - - + ? 44 36
2 Fattah Chaka D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 32
3 English Phil R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 88
4 Altmire Jason D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 55
5 Peterson John E. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 95
6 Gerlach Jim R - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 89
7 Sestak Joseph A. D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 60
8 Murphy Patrick J. D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 55
9 Shuster William R + + + - + + + + - + + + + + + ? + + + + 89 95
10 Carney Christopher P. D - - - + + + + + ? - + - - - + + - - + + 53 53
11 Kanjorski Paul E. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 45 32
12 Murtha John P. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + - + 50 39
13 Schwartz Allyson Y. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 49
14 Doyle Michael F. D + - - + ? + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 53 47
15 Dent Charles W. R + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 100 94
16 Pitts Joseph R. R - + + - - - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 75 92
17 Holden Tim D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 45 53
18 Murphy Timothy F. R - + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + - + + 85 92
19 Platts Todd Russell R - - + - - - + + + + + - + + + + + + + + 70 86
Rhode Island                                                  
1 Kennedy Patrick J. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 30
2 Langevin James R. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 40
South Carolina                                                  
1 Brown Henry E. R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 96
2 Wilson Addison Graves R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + - + 65 75
3 Barrett J. Gresham R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 87
4 Inglis Bob R + + + - - - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 84
5 Spratt John M. D - + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - + 55 47
6 Clyburn James E. D + + - + + + ? + + - + - - - + + - + + + 68 41
South Dakota                                                  
AL Herseth Sandlin Stephanie D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 65 65
Tennessee                                                  
1 Davis David R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 85
2 Duncan John J. R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + + + + - - + 70 79
3 Wamp Zach R + + + - - + + + - + + - + + - + + + + + 75 83
4 Davis Lincoln D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + ? + + + 68 79
5 Cooper James D + - - + + + + + + + + - - - + + + + + + 75 58
6 Gordon Bart D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 70 56
7 Blackburn Marsha W. R + + ? - - - + + - + + + + ? - + + + + + 72 92
8 Tanner John S. D - + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 65 69
9 Cohen Stephen I. D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - + 50 50
Texas                                                  
1 Gohmert Louie R + + + - - - + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 88
2 Poe Ted R + + + - - + + - - + + + ? + - + + ? + + 72 83
3 Johnson Sam R + ? ? - - ? + ? - ? + + + ? + + + + + + 79 92
4 Hall Ralph M. R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 90 79
5 Hensarling Thomas J. R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 86
6 Barton Joe R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 90
7 Culberson John Abney R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + - + + + + ? 79 91
8 Brady Kevin R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 75 94
9 Green Al D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 53
10 McCaul Michael T. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 85 93
11 Conaway K. Michael R + + + - - + - - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 88
12 Granger Kay R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + + ? + + + + 79 95
13 Thornberry Mac R + + + - - + + + + + + + + + - + + + + + 85 92
14 Paul Ron R - ? ? - ? - + - - + - - + + + ? ? - + + 47 62
15 Hinojosa Ruben D + ? ? + + + - + + - ? - - - + ? - + + + 63 60
16 Reyes Silvestre D + - - + + + + ? + - + - - - + + - + + + 63 49
17 Edwards Chet D + + + + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 75 63
18 Jackson-Lee Sheila D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 40
19 Neugebauer Robert R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + - + + + + + 70 92
20 Gonzalez Charles A. D - - + + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 52
21 Smith Lamar S. R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + ? + + + + + 84 93
22 Lampson Nick D + + + + + + + + + - + - - + + ? + + + + 84 51
23 Rodriguez Ciro D - - + + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 60 44
24 Marchant Kenny R + + + - - - + + - + ? + + + + + ? + + + 78 90
25 Doggett Lloyd D - - - + + + - ? + - + - - - + + - + + + 53 33
26 Burgess Michael C. R + + + - - + ? + - + + + + + - + + - + + 74 91
27 Ortiz Solomon P. D ? + + + + + ? + + - + - - - + + - + ? + 71 46
28 Cuellar Henry D + - + + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 70 86
29 Green Gene D + + + + + + - + + - + - - - ? + - - + + 63 46
30 Johnson Eddie Bernice D + - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 42
31 Carter John R. R + + + - - + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 94
32 Sessions Pete R + + + - ? + ? + + + + + + + + + + + ? + 94 93
Utah                                                  
1 Bishop Robert W. R + + + ? ? + + + + + + + + + - + ? - ? + 88 91
2 Matheson Jim D + + + + + + + + + - + - - - + + + + + + 80 76
3 Cannon Chris R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + - + + + + + 80 95
Vermont                                                  
1 Welch Peter F. D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 55 55
Virginia                                                  
1 Wittman Robert J. R * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * NA NA
1 Davis Jo Ann R ? ? ? ? * * ? ? ? ? ? - ? ? ? * * * ? ? NA 82
2 Drake Thelma D. R - + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + 80 91
3 Scott Robert C. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 33
4 Forbes James Randy R - + + - - + ? + - + + + + + + + + + + + 79 92
5 Goode Virgil H. R + ? ? - + - + + - + - + + + + + + - - + 67 80
6 Goodlatte Bob R + + + - - - + + - + + - + + + + + + + + 75 94
7 Cantor Eric R + + + - - - + - + + + + + + + + + + + + 80 96
8 Moran James P. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - + + + 55 53
9 Boucher Rick D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - + + 65 42
10 Wolf Frank R. R - - + + + - + + + + + - + + + + + + + + 80 80
11 Davis Tom R - ? + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 95 91
Washington                                                  
1 Inslee Jay D + - - + + + - + + - + - ? ? + ? - + + ? 63 50
2 Larsen Rick D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 65 57
3 Baird Brian D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - ? + - + + + 58 52
4 Hastings Doc R + + + - - + + + - + + + ? + + + + - - + 74 96
5 McMorris Rodgers Cathy R + + + - - + + + - + + + + + + + + - - + 75 89
6 Dicks Norman D. D - - - + + + - ? + - ? - - - + + - + + + 50 39
7 McDermott Jim D - - - + + + - + + - - - - - + + - + + + 50 26
8 Reichert David G. R - - - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 85 82
9 Smith Adam D + - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 65 56
West Virginia                                                  
1 Mollohan Alan B. D + + - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 55 34
2 Capito Shelley Moore R - + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + 90 89
3 Rahall Nick J. D + + - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - - - + 60 33
Wisconsin                                                  
1 Ryan Paul R + - + - - + + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 75 92
2 Baldwin Tammy D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - - + 45 25
3 Kind Ron D - - - + + + + + + - + - - - + + - + + + 60 49
4 Moore Gwen D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - ? + + 53 37
5 Sensenbrenner F. James R + + + - - - + - - + + + + + + + + + + + 75 81
6 Petri Thomas E. R - + + + + + + + - + + - + + + + + + + + 85 79
7 Obey David R. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 22
8 Kagen Steven L. D - - - + + + - + + - + - - - + + - - + + 50 50
Wyoming                                                  
1 Cubin Barbara R + + + ? ? ? + - ? + ? + ? + + ? ? ? - ? 80 91

Vote Descriptions - House

(1) Electricity Infrastructure— H.R. 2641

By a 257-174 vote, the House rejected an amendment to H.R. 2641, the Energy and Water appropriations bill, which would have prevented vital national interest electricity transmission corridors from being designated. The Chamber strongly opposed this amendment.

National interest transmission corridors were established in the Chamber-supported Energy Policy Act of 2005 to provide a federal backstop for siting of new electricity transmission lines to address serious near-term problems of ensuring adequate delivery of electricity.

The Chamber will continue to fi ght efforts in Congress to undo the national interest electricity transmission corridor provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

(2) Electricity Mandate—H.R. 3221

Despite the Chamber's strong opposition, the House approved 220-190 an amendment to H.R. 3221, New Direction for Energy Independence, National Security, and Consumer Protection Act, to establish an unworkable 15 percent nationwide renewable electricity mandate.

A requirement that 15 percent of electricity in every state come from renewables (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, ocean, tidal, and incremental hydropower) is unworkable. Such a mandate would have ignored clean energy sources such as nuclear energy and clean coal and would have resulted in a wealth transfer from states without capacity for renewable energy to states abundant in renewable resources.

A similar mandate was rejected by the Senate, and it was not included in the energy legislation that became law.

(3) Punitive Energy Taxes— H.R. 2776

Despite strong opposition from the Chamber, the House approved by a vote of 221-189, H.R. 2776, the Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation Tax Act of 2007. If enacted, this legislation would have established punitive taxes on the oil and natural gas sector.

The Chamber supports efforts to increase renewables and energy conservation. However, fossil fuels constitute 86 percent of the nation's energy mix and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. H.R. 2776 unfairly and punitively singled out the oil and natural gas industry for what would have amounted to a modern-day version of the 1980–1988 Windfall Profi t Tax. This 1980s-era tax reduced domestic oil production and increased foreign oil imports.

Throughout 2007, the Chamber strongly opposed several schemes considered in the House and Senate to single out the oil and natural gas sector for new taxes. Despite the vote on H.R. 2776, no punitive tax increases were included in energy policy legislation ultimately signed into law by President Bush on December 19.

(4) Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act— H.R. 3074

In July, the House passed H.R. 3074, the Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 268-153, with the Chamber's full support. This legislation provides the necessary funding to ensure that the U.S. transportation system is the safest and most effi cient in the world.

The business community depends on a safe, reliable transportation system to remain competitive and productive. H.R. 3074 addresses the enormous demands of the U.S. transportation infrastructure system by providing funding for highway and transit programs authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Effi cient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). In addition, it provides full funding for the Federal Aviation Administration to improve the safety, performance, and capacity of the nation's aviation system.

This bill was ultimately folded into the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 and signed into law by the president on December 26.

(5) Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act— H.R. 3074

In a related measure in November, the House agreed to the conference report for H.R. 3074, by a 270-147 vote. The passage of this package was crucial to ensuring that the necessary funding levels for transportation programs were met in the fi nal Consolidated Appropriations Act.

(6) Water Resources Development Act—H.R. 1495

On November 6, the House voted to override the president's veto of H.R. 1495, the Water Resources Development Act, 361-54, with the full support of the Chamber.

This comprehensive water resources legislation is long overdue and provides the coordinated federal agenda needed to better protect the United States against severe weather and fl ooding and to facilitate commerce at the nation's waterways and ports.

H.R. 1495 provides the Army Corps of Engineers with the resources needed to undertake hundreds of fl ood control, navigation, and environmental mitigation projects over the next two years and ensures that transportation demands are met.

Following House action to override the president's veto, the Senate on December 8 voted to override the veto. The measure became law. The Water Resources Development Act—typically authorized on a two-year basis—is an important Chamber priority and had not been reauthorized since 2000.

(7) Small Business Compliance— H.R. 2829

With the Chamber's support, the House passed 267-154 an amendment to H.R. 2829, the Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act of 2008, that would have extended a moratorium on small business compliance with costly and overly burdensome requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 requires management and an external auditor to report on the adequacy of a company's internal control over fi nancial reporting.

While the Chamber supports effective internal controls and the intent of Sarbanes-Oxley, it strongly believes that smaller companies should not have to bear the disproportionately burdensome costs of Section 404 until the implementation of Section 404 has been fi xed.

Although this amendment did not become law, in mid-December, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission announced that it would delay the implementation of reporting requirements imposed on small businesses by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Chamber will continue working to protect small businesses from being unfairly and disproportionately burdened.

(8) America COMPETES Act— H.R. 2272

By a 367-57 vote, the House passed H.R. 2272, the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science Act. The Chamber strongly supported this legislation, which emphasizes more funding for math and science education and sciencefocused research and development, allowing the United States to remain competitive.

The legislation lays the foundation for signifi cantly increased federal investment for math and science research and education by authorizing funding for numerous programs such as the National Science Foundation; the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the Technology Innovation Program; and a new cutting-edge energy research agency, the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy.

If America is to remain competitive in the global, knowledge-based economy, it needs to restore excellence in math and science education and research. The COMPETES Act, which was signed into law on August 9, will do much to bolster these efforts.

(9) Terrorism Risk Insurance Revision and Extension Act— H.R. 2761

By a 312-110 vote, the House passed H.R. 2761, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Revision and Extension Act with the Chamber's full support. This legislation extends the previous Terrorism Risk Insurance Act for seven years.

Despite efforts to better protect the homeland, not enough has changed since the attacks of September 11, 2001, to justify allowing the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act to expire. Catastrophic terrorism remains an uninsurable risk because, unlike most insurable natural disasters, its frequency and location cannot be predicted, and its potential scale can be devastating.

Congress and the administration recognized the terrorism insurance crisis and passed the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002, which was extended in 2004. This legislation created a partnership between the government and the private sector to provide businesses with a much-needed sense of security in the event of a catastrophic domestic terror attack.

H.R. 2761 was passed under a unanimous consent agreement in the Senate on November 16 and signed into law by the president on December 26.

(10) SCHIP—H.R. 3162

On August 1, 2007, the House passed H.R. 3162, the Children's Health and Medicare Protection Act of 2007, by a vote of 225-204. The Chamber strongly opposed this legislation because it would have raised the federal excise tax on tobacco and made signifi cant cuts to Medicare Advantage plans to fund this important public program.

Prejudicing a narrow sector of the economy to fund a broad-based entitlement program hurts consumers, businesses, and regions in the United States whose economic well-being relies upon tobacco-based agricultural and industrial activities. Additionally, cutting Medicare Advantage plans acts as a double blow to the employer priorities of reducing health care costs through market competition and promoting superior health care for all Americans.

Multiple iterations of this legislation were considered by the House and Senate, but the tobacco tax and cuts to Medicare Advantage were considered throughout. The legislation was vetoed by the president, and attempts to override the veto were unsuccessful.

(11) FDA Amendments—H.R. 2900

With the full support of the Chamber, the House passed H.R. 2900, the Food and Drug Amendments Act of 2007, 403-16. This broadly supported, bipartisan legislation includes provisions that reauthorize the Prescription Drug User Fee Agreement (PDUFA) and the Medical Device User Fee and Modernization Act (MDUFMA) and promotes greater product safety.

PDUFA has dramatically improved the drug approval process, remedying the signifi cant "drug lag" of the 1990s. Likewise, MDUFMA offers similar streamlining of the approval process for medical devices.

The Senate went on to approve similar legislation, H.R. 3580, which was signed into law by the president on September 27.

(12) Drug Price Negotiation— H.R. 4

Despite strong opposition by the Chamber, the House passed H.R. 4, the Medicare Prescription Drug Price Negotiation Act of 2007, by a vote of 225-170. The bill would have not only removed the non-interference provision, a vital component of the Medicare Modernization Act, but would have gone further to require the Secretary of Health and Human Services to negotiate drug prices.

Ensuring robust competition in the overwhelmingly popular Medicare Part D program is among the Chamber's highest priorities for meeting the health care needs of retirees, employees, and businesses across the country. This program allows pharmacy benefi t managers, who provide drug coverage for 190 million Americans, to negotiate drug prices while offering competing versions and multiple plan offerings to seniors. This protects Medicare benefi ciaries from government-imposed price controls.

The Senate considered similar legislation, S. 3, that would have removed, but would not have required, the non-interference provision. Neither were signed into law.

(13) Employee Free Choice Act— H.R. 800

Despite strong opposition by the Chamber, the House passed 241-185, H.R. 800, the Employee Free Choice Act.

This legislation would have upended the democratic process by which employees determine whether they wish to be represented by a particular union. The National Labor Relations Act (NRLA), enacted more than 70 years ago, established a secret ballot system that protected the interests of unions, employers, and employees and ensured that the process was free from coercion and intimidation. If enacted, H.R. 800 would have amended NRLA to give unions the right to achieve recognition through a card check process, thus permitting labor unions to avoid secret ballot elections.

Although this legislation was ultimately defeated in the Senate, it is a major priority for unions and will undoubtedly come up again in future sessions of Congress. The Chamber will continue to fi ght this legislation to make certain employees maintain their rights to the time-honored secret ballot process and are free from intimidation and coercion by the unions.

(14) Ledbetter Fair Pay Act— H.R. 2831

Despite strong opposition by the Chamber, the House passed 225-199, H.R. 2831, the Ledbetter Fair Pay Act. This bill would amend Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and several other anti-discrimination laws to effectively abolish the statute of limitations in many cases.

H.R. 2831 is purported to overturn the Supreme Court's recent decision in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., which rejected the "paycheck theory" of compensation discrimination that would have permitted claims to be fi led many years after an alleged act of discrimination occurs. If signed into law, H.R. 2831 would not only reverse this commonsense decision, but it could be applied broadly and create a situation where claims could be fi led decades after an allegedly discriminatory act occurred.

This legislation is now awaiting action in the Senate. The Chamber will continue to oppose this wrongheaded approach and work to preserve the intent of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

(15) Small Business Tax Relief Act— H.R. 976

In February, the House passed 360-45, H.R. 976, the Small Business Tax Relief Act of 2007. The Chamber supported this legislation, which would have provided tax relief to help generate job growth for small businesses.

H.R. 976 would have allowed small businesses to more easily afford large capital expenses by extending and increasing Section 179 small business expensing. It would have extended and enhanced the Work Opportunity Tax Credit, which provides incentives to employers to hire individuals from targeted groups that frequently experience barriers to work.

Unfortunately, the provisions of the legislation were never signed into law.

(16) Internet Tax—H.R. 3678

With the support of the Chamber, the House passed H.R. 3678, the Internet Tax Freedom Act Amendments Act of 2007, 402-0. The legislation provided for the extension of the Internet tax moratorium for an additional seven years, through November 1, 2014.

Every day, millions of Americans make countless transactions online, doing everything from buying products to managing their bank accounts. Extension of the Internet tax moratorium prevents consumers from unnecessary and burdensome taxes on Internet access.

The Senate passed H.R. 3678 under a unanimous consent agreement, and the president signed the bill into law on October 31, 2007.

(17) Temporary Tax Relief Act— H.R. 3996

Despite strong opposition by the Chamber, the House passed 216-193, H.R. 3996, the Temporary Tax Relief Act of 2007, a bill that would have signifi cantly increased taxes on American businesses. While the Chamber supported the goal of extending alternative minimum tax (AMT) relief, it did not agree with permanently increasing taxes on American businesses to pay for a short-term extension of AMT relief.

In an important victory for the Chamber, the House and Senate agreed to extend AMT relief without imposing any tax increases that would have harmed American businesses and the economy. The legislation was signed into law by the president on December 26.

(18) U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement—H.R. 3688

With strong support from the Chamber, the House passed H.R. 3688, the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act by a 285-132 vote in November. This trade agreement brings tangible commercial benefi ts to American workers, farmers, and fi rms while advancing key U.S. foreign policy interests.

The agreement provides a level playing fi eld for American workers and farmers, ensuring that the United States gets liberalized access to the dynamic Peruvian market. Currently, most Peruvian products enter the U.S. market duty free, while American exports face an average tariff of 11 percent for manufactured goods and 16 percent for agricultural goods. This agreement corrects this unfair trade imbalance by eliminating nearly all tariffs on U.S. exports to Peru within a few years. The U.S. International Trade Commission estimates that this agreement will add $1.1 billion to U.S. exports and $2.1 billion to U.S. GDP.

On December 4, the Senate passed H.R. 3688, and the president signed the legislation into law on December 14.

(19) Andean Trade Preference Act Extension—H.R. 1830

In June the House passed, under suspension of the rules, H.R. 1830, the Andean Trade Preference Act Extension, 365-59. The Chamber strongly supported this legislation, which extends the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), previously set to expire on June 30, 2007, through the end of February 2008. Both the foreign policy and the economic policy interests of the United States benefi t from an extension of this act.

For more than 15 years, the Andean Trade Preferences Act has surpassed expectations as a tool to generate trade, growth, and jobs in its benefi ciary countries. In Colombia and Peru alone, ATPA and the industries it supports have led directly to the creation of approximately 1.5 million jobs.

H.R. 1830 passed the Senate under a unanimous consent agreement and was signed into law by the president on June 30. The Chamber will continue its efforts to garner approval for the trade promotion agreements with Panama and Colombia.

(20) International Investment Reform—H.R. 556

With strong backing by the Chamber, the House passed H.R. 556, the National Security Foreign Investment Reform and Strengthened Transparency Act, by a 423-0 vote.

This bipartisan bill makes certain that the administration's process for vetting proposed foreign investments in the United States meets national security objectives while preserving an open, fair, and nondiscriminatory investment environment. Foreign investment in the United States supports employment for more than 5.1 million Americans who typically earn compensation well above the national average. In 2005, a number of foreign-owned companies reinvested $59 billion in profi ts back into the U.S. economy, providing U.S. fi rms with capital for expansion of production facilities and resources for increased research and development spending.

The Senate passed H.R. 556 in June under a unanimous consent agreement, and the bill was signed into law in July.