Sue and Settle - Recommendations

The regulatory process should not be radically altered simply because of a consent decree or settlement agreement. There should not be a two-track system that allows the public to meaningfully participate in rulemakings, but excludes the public from sue and settle negotiations which result in rulemakings designed to benefit a specific interest group. There should not be one system where agencies can use their discretion to develop rules and another system where advocacy groups use lawsuits to legally bind agencies and improperly hand over their discretion.


Federal agencies should inform the public immediately upon receiving notice of an advocacy group’s intent to file a lawsuit.76  This public notice should be provided in a prominent location, such as the agency’s website or through a notice in the Federal Register.77  By having this advanced notice, affected parties will have a better opportunity to intervene in cases and also prepare more thoughtful comments.

Comments and Intervening

Federal agencies should be required to submit a notice of a proposed consent decree or settlement agreement before it is filed with the court. This notice should be published in the Federal Register and allow a reasonable period for public comment (e.g., 45 days).

Currently, because it is so difficult for third parties to intervene in sue and settle cases, courts should presume that it is appropriate to include a third party as an intervenor. The intervenors should only be excluded if this strong presumption could be rebutted by showing that the party’s interests are adequately represented by the existing parties in the action. Given that intervenors presently can be excluded from settlement negotiations, sometimes without even being notified of the negotiations, there should be clarification that all parties in the action, including the intervenors, should have a seat at the negotiation table.

Substance of Rules

Agencies should not be able to cede their discretionary powers to private interests, especially the power to issue regulations and to develop the content of rules. This problem does not exist in the normal rulemaking process. Yet, since courts readily approve consent decrees that legally bind agencies in the sue and settle context, the decree itself becomes a vehicle for agencies to give up their discretionary rulemaking power—and even to develop rules with questionable statutory authority.

Courts should review the statutory basis for agency actions in consent decrees and settlement agreements in the same manner as if they were adjudicating a case. For example, they should ensure that an agency is required to perform a mandatory act or duty, and, if so, that the agency is implementing the act or duty in a way that is authorized by statute.


Federal agencies should ensure that they (and their partners, including states and other agencies) have enough time to comply with regulatory timelines. The public also should be given enough time to meaningfully comment on proposed regulations, and agencies should themselves take enough time to adequately conduct proper analysis. This would include agency compliance with the RFA, executive orders, and other requirements designed to promote better regulations. This is particularly important because recent rulemakings are often more challenging to evaluate in terms of scope, complexity, and cost than earlier rules were.

The Sunshine for Regulatory Decrees and Settlements Act of 2013

Fortunately, there is a simple, noncontroversial way to address the sue and settle problem that currently undermines the fundamental protections that exist within our regulatory system. Passage of the Sunshine for Regulatory Decrees and Settlements Act of 2013 would solve the sue and settle problem and restore the protections of the Administrative Procedure Act to all citizens and stakeholders.

76. The Department of Justice also should provide public notice of the filing of lawsuits against agencies, as well as settlements the agencies agree to.

77.  It is our understanding that EPA recently began to disclose on this website the notices of intent to sue that it receives from outside parties. While this is a welcome development, this important disclosure needs to be statutorily required, not just a voluntary measure.